In the late 19th and early 20th century, temple dancers and musicians from Thanjavur moved to British Madras in search of concerts and tuitions. Most famous among them was Veena Dhanammal and her children, a large extended family of musician and dancers or ‘sadir’ artistes. Veena Dhanam was respected by musicians and rasikas alike. The Friday soirees at her residence, where she played the veena and sang, were famous and people such as TTK, Ranga Ramanuja Iyengar and others went there to listen to her. There would be interaction after the chamber concerts. Artists were supported by staunch art lovers such as businessman Ramaniah Chetty among others. The British also invited many artists for formal Government functions.
- Charumathi Ramachandran (‘Cultural hub,’ The Hindu, Aug 16, 2013)

Thullal is also a genre of poetry in Malayalam. It is said to have been organized by Kunjan Nambiar, a veritable genius and one of the foremost poets of Kerala who lived in the 18th century. Kunjan Nambiar, for his inspiration, turned to legend and mythology but gave to each story or episode a totally contemporary slant. He took figures from the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Bhaagavatham and other Puraanas and exposed them to the modes and mores of the society of his time. The language also is predominantly Malayalam with a large admixture of colloquial and dialectal forms. Humor is invariably the dominant mood: other bhavas (expressions) are brought in for variety and to suit the situation.

A group of nine elaborate treatises on music written during the rule of the Vijayanagara kings is called the Sangitashastra navaratna which are known as the definitive treatises in Carnatic music legacy. Sangitasara (1320-1380 AD), a breakthrough work on music by Sage Vidyaranya has also found a place among the nine apart from being renowned as the first work to classify ragas as Melas (parent) and Janya (progeny) ragas, and was further elaborated by Ramamatya Swaramela Kalanidhi (16th century) and Venkatamakhin (17th century). Another noteworthy feature is that the ragas are also classified as ragas and raginis on the basis of chhandas. Govinda Dikshita in his Sangitasudha (early seventeenth century) later on summarized the details existing in the parts of the Sangitasara which dealt with the fifteen melas and their fifty janya ragas, as well as certain types of singers. The Sangitasara deals in detail with the ragas, especially the details regarding importance of raga alapanas and the ways of doing it.

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