A stylised form of martial arts-cum-dance called Velakali is offered as a ritual in many temples in Central Kerala. Different movements in a Velakali are known as Pidichikali (single and double) and Padakali and conclude with a Vela Ottam. Bhava has no place in Velakali. The importance is on tala.

Dance has been an essential component of Harikatha from the beginning of the Vedic age. To be a proper Harikatha exponent, one must know Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada. Harikatha pithamaha Adibhatla Narayana Das from Andhra could deliver Harikatha in many languages including English, Persian and Urdu.

Chhau is an independent colloquial Oriya word. It means, as can be seen in Promode Abhdhan, the most authoritative Oriya lexicon, to hunt or attack stealthily. The word Chhau has on the other hand, three colloquial Oriya derivatives. Chhauri, meaning the armour; chhauni, meaning the military camp and chhauka, meaning the quality of attacking stealthily. All these derivates as well as the root word Chhau have unmistakable reference to war. Therefore, Chhau Nacha in all probability and rationality does mean war-dance, not masked dance.
(Jiwan Pani, “Chhau-a comparative study of Seraikella and Mayurbhanj forms”- Nartanam Jan-Mar 2003)

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