The maddalam is one of India's many types of drums. It is of two kinds - shuddha maddalam and toppi maddalam. Cylindrical in shape and played horizontally, the maddalam is generally larger than the mridangam. The shuddha maddalam is played in ritual music in temples, while the toppi maddalam is an indispensable part of the orchestra for a Kathakali or Mohiniattom performance. The instrument is also used in ritual forms such as Krishnattam and Thullal.
('For rituals and art' by Anjana Rajan, The Hindu, Jan 18, 2008)

The Orissa State Museum, set up in 1932 by two historians, Prof. N.C. Banerjee and Prof. Ghanashyam Dash of Ravenshaw College, Cuttack, has over 37,000 titles with manuscripts in palm-leaf, bamboo-leaf, hand-made paper, ivory, birch bark and kumbhi bark. It has rare garland-shaped, fan-shaped, fish-shaped, sword-shaped, rat and parrot-shaped varieties of manuscripts which wowed the world at the first-ever exhibition of Indian manuscripts held in 2006 in Frankfurt as part of the Frankfurt Book Fair. The Chikitsamanjari, describing the preparation and use of Ayurvedic medicine for both humans and cattle, is a rare possession of the Orissa State Museum. Its masterpiece remains Gitagovinda of Jayadeva, one of the most popular and enduring texts inspiring an astounding range of artistic endeavour.
('Treasure trove of traditions' by Sudha Gopalakrishnan, The Hindu Magazine, Jan 6, 2008)

An early form of dramatic dance was inspired by the Shiva cult. Sive Leela Natyams describing the 10 activities of Lord Shiva in poetic form were danced at temple festivals. There was a stone slab between the image of the Nandi bull and the temple entrance for staging such dances. Vishnu Leela Natyams depicting the 10 incarnations of Lord Vishnu were danced at Vishnu temples. (Dance Drama-Andhra & Tamilnad, Dance Dialects of India by Ragini Devi, p66)

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