The Calcutta University, established in 1857, has a collection of over 42,000 manuscripts including 20,000 Sanskrit manuscripts and several in Persian, Arabic, as well as Tibetan, Bangla, Oriya, Maithili, Gaudi, Newari and Malayalam. Some of these are wrought in gold and silver lettering. Ashtasahasrikaprajnaparamita, the most important text of Mahayana Buddhism dating to the 15th century, is at this institution.
('Treasure trove of traditions' by Sudha Gopalakrishnan, The Hindu Magazine, Jan 6, 2008)

Irayimman Thampi (1782 1856) from Kizhake Matam, near Thiruvananthapuram, is renowned for his Kathakali plays Daksha Yagnam, Keechaka Vadham and Uttara Swayamvaram in sopanam style. He has also composed several varnams, padams, kumis, keertanams and Navaratri prabandhams.

The art of expression or abhinaya is subdivided into four categories according to the traditional treatises on dance. The four types of abhinaya are: angika (of the body), vachika (related to speech or other sound), aharya (related to decoration of the body or of the surroundings) and satvika (expression that stems from within, rather than with the help of external props, costumes or even gestures).

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