The 108 karanas of classical dance are carved on the inner walls of the four towered gateways leading into the temple of Shiva in Chidambaram. The figures are arranged in vertical series, each figure set in a niche 15" square. A descriptive couplet from the Natya Sastra is carved above each figure. All the figures are female. (Tandava - the Classical Dance Form, Dance Dialects of India by Ragini Devi, p30)

There are inscriptions containing verses from the Natya Sastra in the reliefs at Chidambaram, none in Thanjavur and defaced or illegible ones in Kumbakonam. The Prambanan (Indonesia) reliefs have both males and females, probably representing both Shiva and Parvathi. ("Karana-s in dance sculptures" by A Seshan, Nartanam, vol III, #3, p 15/19, July - Sept 2003).

Jayapa Senapati, a Kakatiya commander wrote three treatises on music, dance and instrumental music. The one on dance, Nritta Ratnavali (13th century), was translated into Telugu by Rallapalli Anantakrishna Sharma a few decades ago.

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