Orissa is the probably one of the few states in the country where all the four forms of puppetry - rod, string, glove and shadow (Ravan Chhaya) - are still thriving.

At the center of the hall in Chennakeshava temple at Belur (Karnataka), is a polished stone platform on which the queen used to dance, in praise of Lord Chennakeshava. It is said that the beauty of the Hoysala queen Shantaladevi inspired the Hoysala craftsmen to make the scintillating sculptures within this temple.

The 19th century composer Ghanam Krishna Iyer's Tamil padams are popular in dance and music. In dance, they are suitable for abhinaya because they are romantic in nature interwoven with subtle nayaka-nayaki bhakti.

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