History of dance in India can be roughly divided into 4 periods. The first dates to the prehistoric and proto-historic period of the Mohenjodaro and Harappa civilizations and evidences from Vedas, Upanishads, the Brahmanas and the epics. The 2nd period spans the 2nd c BC to 9th c AD. This period includes the Buddhist monuments of Bharhut, Sanchi, Bhaja, Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda, the caves of Ellora, the temples from Kashmir to Orissa, especially the early Gupta temples and those of Bhubaneshwar. The 3rd period comprises the 10th to 18th centuries, which includes early and late medieval monuments. The 4th period includes the 18th century to the present times. (Kapila Vatsyayan - Indian Classical Dance)

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Nawabs of Oudh lavished patronage on dance and music. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Oudh (reigning from 1847-1856) was himself an accomplished musician and Kathak dancer. He originated the Thumri style of music and composed lyrical love songs (Thumris) in a classical style.

When acting, pacha actors and normal female actors should not show their teeth or speak or use their voices. But katti, kari and tadi can roar or make sounds befitting the occasion.
(G Venu, "Abhinaya in Kathakali," Nartanam -Vol 1, #3, July - Sept 2001)

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